ck0001422142-10q_20170331.htm

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2017

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ______________ to ______________

Commission File Number: 000-53057

 

Aerpio Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

EIN 61-1547850

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

9987 Carver Road

Cincinnati, OH

45242

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (513) 985-1920

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  (Do not check if a small reporting company)

  

Small reporting company

 

Emerging growth        

company

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

As of May 10, 2017, the registrant had  27,075,284 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, outstanding.

 

 


 


CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains express or implied forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act that are based on our management’s belief and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, these statements relate to future events or our future operational or financial performance, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

 

 

the initiation, timing, progress and results of our research and development programs and future preclinical and clinical studies;

 

 

 

our ability to advance any product candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical studies and obtain regulatory approval for them;

 

 

 

the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals;

 

 

 

the commercialization, marketing and manufacturing of our product candidates, if approved;

 

 

 

the pricing and reimbursement of our product candidates, if approved;

 

 

 

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of any products for which we receive marketing approval;

 

 

 

the implementation of our strategic plans for our business, product candidates and technology;

 

 

 

the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our product candidates and technology;

 

 

 

our expectations related to the use of proceeds from private placement offering, and estimates of our expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and our needs for additional financing;

 

 

 

our ability to maintain and establish collaborations;

 

 

 

our financial performance;

 

 

 

developments relating to our competitors and our industry, including the impact of government regulation; and

 

 

 

other risks and uncertainties, including those listed under the caption “Risk Factors.”

In some cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by terminology such as “may,” “should,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential,” “continue” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. These statements are only predictions. You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements because they involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, which are, in some cases, beyond our control and which could materially affect results. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things, those listed under the section entitled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. If one or more of these risks or uncertainties occur, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual events or results may vary significantly from those implied or projected by the forward-looking statements. No forward-looking statement is a guarantee of future performance. You should read this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and the documents that we reference in Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission as exhibits hereto completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from any future results expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.

 

The forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q represent our views as of the date of this Report. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments will cause our views to change. However, while we may elect to update these forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we have no current intention of doing so except to the extent required by applicable law. You should therefore not rely on these forward-looking statements as representing our views as of any date subsequent to the date of this Report.

 

 


Table of Contents

 

 

 

Page

PART I.

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

2

Item 1.

Financial Statements (Unaudited)

2

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

2

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

3

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders Equity (Deficit)

4

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

5

 

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

6

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

19

Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

27

Item 4.

Controls and Procedures

27

PART II.

OTHER INFORMATION

29

Item 1.

Legal Proceedings

29

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

29

Item 2.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

56

Item 3.

Defaults Upon Senior Securities

56

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

56

Item 5.

Other Information

56

Item 6.

Exhibits

57

Signatures

59

Exhibit Index

60

 

 

 

i


PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements.

AERPIO PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

 

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

35,139,109

 

 

$

1,609,694

 

Short-term investments

 

 

50,000

 

 

 

50,000

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

32,453

 

 

 

4,157

 

Prepaid research and development contracts

 

 

297,158

 

 

 

353,434

 

Other current assets

 

 

602,488

 

 

 

209,038

 

Total current assets

 

 

36,121,208

 

 

 

2,226,323

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Furniture and equipment, net

 

 

138,147

 

 

 

149,595

 

Deposits

 

 

20,960

 

 

 

20,960

 

Total assets

 

$

36,280,315

 

 

$

2,396,878

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liabilities, redeemable convertible preferred stock, and stockholders´ equity (deficit)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable and accrued expenses

 

$

2,970,048

 

 

$

2,470,970

 

Convertible notes

 

 

-

 

 

 

12,386,647

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

2,970,048

 

 

 

14,857,617

 

Commitments and contingencies (Note 10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Redeemable convertible preferred stock (all classes)

 

 

-

 

 

 

73,757,890

 

Stockholders’ equity (deficit):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, $0.0001 par value per share; 300,000,000 and 17,440,436 shares authorized and 27,049,555 and 1,240,925 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016 respectively.

 

 

2,705

 

 

124

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

125,465,315

 

 

 

-

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(92,157,753

)

 

 

(86,218,753

)

Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)

 

 

33,310,267

 

 

 

(86,218,629

)

Total liabilities, redeemable convertible preferred stock, and stockholders’ equity (deficit)

 

$

36,280,315

 

 

$

2,396,878

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

2


 

AERPIO PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

 

 

 

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Operating expenses:

 

(unaudited)

 

Research and development

 

$

2,255,584

 

 

$

2,989,558

 

General and administrative

 

 

2,504,001

 

 

 

1,215,885

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

4,759,585

 

 

 

4,205,443

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(4,759,585

)

 

 

(4,205,443

)

Grant income

 

 

35,657

 

 

 

8,670

 

Interest (expense) income, net

 

 

(271,775

)

 

 

1,078

 

Other income, net

 

 

-

 

 

 

997

 

Total other (expense) income

 

 

(236,118

)

 

 

10,745

 

Net loss and comprehensive loss

 

$

(4,995,703

)

 

$

(4,194,698

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reconciliation to net loss attributable to common stockholders:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss and comprehensive loss

 

$

(4,995,703

)

 

$

(4,194,698

)

Accretion of preferred stock to redemption value

 

 

(943,297

)

 

 

(1,015,371

)

Net Loss attributable to common stockholders

 

$

(5,939,000

)

 

$

(5,210,069

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

 

$

(1.06

)

 

$

(7.07

)

Weighted average number of common shares used in computing net loss per share

   attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

 

 

5,605,151

 

 

 

737,016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

3


AERPIO PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders Equity (Deficit) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)

 

 

 

Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock (all classes)

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

 

Total

 

 

Shares

 

 

Par Value

 

 

Additional Paid-In Capital

 

 

Accumulated Deficit

 

 

Total

 

Balance at December 31, 2016

 

 

14,015,016

 

 

 

$

73,757,890

 

 

 

1,240,925

 

 

$

124

 

 

 

 

 

$

(86,218,753

)

 

$

(86,218,629

)

Adjustment of redeemable

   convertible preferred stock

   to redemption value

 

 

 

 

 

 

943,297

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(943,297

)

 

 

(943,297

)

Conversion of preferred stock

 

 

(14,015,016

)

 

 

 

(74,701,187

)

 

 

14,015,016

 

 

 

1,402

 

 

 

74,699,785

 

 

 

 

 

 

74,701,187

 

Conversion of convertible

   notes and accrued interest

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,744,059

 

 

 

274

 

 

 

13,447,660

 

 

 

 

 

 

13,447,934

 

Share exchange in connection

   with Merger

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,000,000

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

(100

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Issuance of common stock, net

   of issuance costs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8,049,555

 

 

 

805

 

 

 

37,162,585

 

 

 

 

 

 

37,163,390

 

Share-based compensation

   expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

155,385

 

 

 

 

 

 

155,385

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(4,995,703

)

 

 

(4,995,703

)

Balance at March 31, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27,049,555

 

 

$

2,705

 

 

$

125,465,315

 

 

$

(92,157,753

)

 

$

33,310,267

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

 

4


AERPIO PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

 

 

 

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Operating activities:

 

(unaudited)

 

Net loss

 

$

(4,995,703

)

 

$

(4,194,698

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation

 

 

13,656

 

 

 

16,485

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

155,385

 

 

 

125,215

 

Amortization of debt issuance costs

 

 

75,561

 

 

 

-

 

Interest expense related to convertible note conversion

 

 

204,929

 

 

 

-

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

(28,296

)

 

 

63,457

 

Prepaid expenses and current other assets

 

 

(337,174

)

 

 

214,040

 

Accounts payable and other current liabilities

 

 

982,521

 

 

 

(97,626

)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(3,929,121

)

 

 

(3,873,127

)

Investing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchase of furniture and equipment

 

 

(2,208

)

 

 

(110,449

)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

 

(2,208

)

 

 

(110,449

)

Financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from issuances of convertible notes

 

 

297,354

 

 

 

-

 

Proceeds from sale of common stock

 

 

40,247,775

 

 

 

-

 

Cash paid in connection with the sale of common stock

 

 

(3,084,385

)

 

 

-

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

37,460,744

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

 

 

33,529,415

 

 

 

(3,983,576

)

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year

 

 

1,609,694

 

 

 

5,144,211

 

Cash and cash equivalents, three months ended

 

$

35,139,109

 

 

$

1,160,635

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-cash financing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conversion of preferred stock into common stock

 

$

74,701,187

 

 

$

-

 

Conversion of notes and accrued interest into common stock

 

 

13,447,934

 

 

 

-

 

Accretion of preferred stock to redemption value

 

 

943,297

 

 

 

1,015,371

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

5


NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(UNAUDITED)

1. Nature of Organization and Operations

Aerpio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the “Company”) was incorporated as Zeta Acquisition Corp. II (“Zeta”) in the State of Delaware on November 16, 2007. Prior to the Merger, (as defined below), Zeta was a “shell company” (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended).

On March 3, 2017, the Company’s  Board of Directors, and on March 10, 2017, the Company’s pre-Merger (as defined below) stockholders, approved an amended and restated certificate of incorporation, which, among other things, increased authorized capital stock from 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, to 300,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share.

On March 15, 2017, Zeta changed its name to Aerpio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Aerpio Acquisition Corp., a corporation formed in the State of Delaware on March 3, 2017, merged with and into Aerpio Therapeutics, Inc., (“Aerpio”), (the “Merger”), a corporation incorporated on November 17, 2011 in the State of Delaware. Pursuant to the Merger, Aerpio remained as the surviving corporation and became the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiary.

At the effective time of the Merger, the shares of the Aerpio’s (i) common stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the closing of the Merger (including restricted common stock, whether vested or unvested, issued under the Aerpio’s 2011 Equity Incentive Plan), and (ii) redeemable convertible preferred stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the closing of the Merger, were converted into shares of the Company’s common stock. In addition, immediately prior to the Merger, the outstanding amounts under certain Senior Secured Convertible Promissory Notes issued by Aerpio to its pre-Merger noteholders were converted into shares of Aerpio’s preferred stock, which were then converted to shares of Aerpio’s common stock and subsequently were converted into shares of the Company’s common stock, together with the other shares of the Aerpio’s common stock described above. In addition, pursuant to the Merger Agreement options to purchase shares of the Aerpio’s common stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the closing of the Merger were assumed and converted into options to purchase shares of the Company’s common stock. All the outstanding capital stock of Aerpio was converted into shares of the Company’s common stock on a 2.3336572:1 basis.

As a result of the Merger, the Company acquired the business of Aerpio and will continue the existing business operations of Aerpio as a public reporting company under the name Aerpio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Immediately after the Merger, on March 15, 2017, Aerpio converted into a Delaware limited liability company (the “Conversion”).

Immediately following the Conversion, the pre-Merger stockholders of Zeta surrendered for cancellation 4,000,000 of the 5,000,000 shares of the outstanding common stock of Zeta, (the “Share Cancellation”).  Following the Share Cancellation, on March 15, 2017, the Company closed a private placement offering (the “Offering”) of 8,049,555 shares of the Company’s common stock, at a purchase price of $5.00 per share, for net proceeds of approximately $37.2 million and the issuance of warrants with a term of three years, to purchase 317,562 shares of the Company’s common stock at an exercise price of $5.00 per share.

 

The Merger was treated as a recapitalization and reverse acquisition for financial reporting purposes. The Company is the legal acquirer of Aerpio in the transaction.  However, Aerpio is considered the acquiring company for accounting purposes since (i) former Aerpio stockholders own in excess of 50% of the combined enterprise on a fully diluted basis immediately following the Merger and Offering, and (ii) all members of the Company’s executive management and Board of Directors are from Aerpio. In accordance with “reverse merger” or “reverse acquisition” accounting treatment, the unaudited condensed consolidated interim financial statements for the period ended March 31, 2017 include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiary, Aerpio Therapeutics, LLC.  The comparative historical financial statements for periods ended prior to the date of the Merger are the historical financial statements of Aerpio. Consequently, the assets and liabilities and the historical operations that are reflected in these condensed consolidated financial statements of the company are those of Aerpio, which were recorded at their historical cost basis.  Unless otherwise indicated, all share and per share figures reflect the exchange of each 2.3336572 shares of Aerpio capital stock, convertible notes and share based awards, then outstanding, for 1 share of the Company’s common stock at the effective time of the Merger.  

The Company is a biopharmaceutical company focused on advancing first-in-class treatments for ocular disease.  The Company’s lead product candidate, AKB-9778, a small molecule activator of the tie-2 pathway, is being developed for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (“DR”). Tie-2 signaling is essential for regulating blood vessel development and the stability of mature vessels. The Company has completed a Phase 2a clinical trial in diabetic macular edema (“DME”), a swelling of the retina that is a common cause of vision loss in patients with DR and intends to initiate a twelve month, double blind Phase 2b clinical trial in patients with DR who have not developed more serious complications such as DME or proliferative diabetic retinopathy.  The DR clinical trial will be initiated in the second quarter of 2017.

6


In addition, the Company has two pipeline programs.  AKB-4924 is a drug candidate for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and ARP-1536, humanized monoclonal antibody is a drug candidate for ocular disease. Humanized antibodies are antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to increase their similarity to antibodies produced naturally in humans. The Company completed a Phase 1a clinical trial in healthy volunteers for AKB-4924 and APR-1536 is currently in preclinical development.  Further development on the pipeline programs is subject to receiving additional funding, which the Company may seek through collaborations with potential strategic and commercial partners.

The Company’s operations to date have been limited to organizing and staffing the Company, business planning, raising capital, acquiring and developing its technology, identifying potential product candidates, and undertaking preclinical and clinical studies. The Company has not generated any revenues to date, nor is there any assurance of any future revenues. The Company’s product candidates are subject to long development cycles, and there is no assurance the Company will be able to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for, or market its product candidates.

The Company is subject to a number of risks similar to other life science companies in the current stage of its life cycle, including, but not limited to, the need to obtain adequate additional funding, possible failure of preclinical testing or clinical trials, the need to obtain marketing approval for its product candidates, competitors developing new technological innovations, the need to successfully commercialize and gain market acceptance of any of the Company’s products that are approved, and protection of proprietary technology. If the Company does not successfully commercialize any of its products or mitigate any of these other risks, it will be unable to generate revenue or achieve profitability.

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulations and include all of the information and disclosures required by generally accepted accounting principles in the United States ("U.S. GAAP" or "GAAP") for interim financial reporting, and, in the opinion of management include all adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the results of operations, financial position and cash flows for each period presented. All adjustments are of a normal and recurring nature. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements of Aerpio Therapeutics Inc. and related footnotes for the year ended December 31, 2016, included in the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed with the SEC. The results of operations for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of results of operations for a full year. The Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements are stated in U.S. Dollars.  

Segment Information

Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company views its operations and manages its business in one operating segment, which is the business of developing and commercializing proprietary therapeutics. All the assets and operations of the Company’s sole operating segment are located in the United States of America.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results may differ from those estimates. Management considers many factors in selecting appropriate financial accounting policies and controls and in developing the estimates and assumptions that are used in the preparation of these consolidated financial statements. Management must apply significant judgment in this process. In addition, other factors may affect estimates, including expected business and operational changes, sensitivity and volatility associated with the assumptions used in developing estimates, and whether historical trends are expected to be representative of future trends. The estimation process often may yield a range of potentially reasonable estimates of the ultimate future outcomes, and management must select an amount that falls within that range of reasonable estimates. Estimates are used in the following areas, among others: fair value of the Company’s common stock and other equity instruments, accrued expenses, and income taxes.

The Company utilizes significant estimates and assumptions in determining the fair value of its common stock and other equity instruments. The Company granted stock options at exercise prices not less than the fair value of its common stock, as determined by the Board of Directors contemporaneously at the date such grants were made. The Board of Directors has determined the estimated

7


fair value of the Company’s common stock based on a number of objective and subjective factors, including external market conditions affecting the biotechnology industry sector and the prices at which the Company sold shares of preferred stock, the superior rights and preferences of securities senior to the Company’s common stock at the time, and the likelihood of achieving a liquidity event, such as a public offering or sale of the Company.

Historically, the Company utilized various valuation methodologies in accordance with the framework of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Technical Practice Aid, Valuation of Privately-Held Company Equity Securities Issued as Compensation, to estimate the fair value of its common stock. Each valuation methodology includes estimates and assumptions that require the Company’s judgment. These estimates and assumptions include a number of objective and subjective factors, including external market conditions, the prices at which the Company sold shares of redeemable convertible preferred stock, the superior rights and preferences of securities senior to the Company’s common stock at the time, and, at December 31, 2016, a probability analysis of various liquidity events under differing scenarios, including both a potential public trading scenario and potential sale scenario. Significant changes to the key assumptions used in the valuations could result in different fair values of common stock and other equity instruments at each valuation date.

The Company’s results can also be affected by economic, political, legislative, regulatory, and legal actions. Economic conditions, such as recessionary trends, inflation, interest and monetary exchange rates, government fiscal policies, and changes in the prices of research studies, can have a significant effect on operations. While the Company maintains reserves for anticipated liabilities and carries various levels of insurance, the Company could be affected by civil, criminal, regulatory or administrative actions, claims, or proceedings.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents consist of all cash on hand, deposits, and funds invested in short-term investments with remaining maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase. The Company may maintain balances with its banks in excess of federally insured limits.

Short-Term Investments

Time deposits with remaining maturities of greater than three months but less than one year at the time of purchase are classified as short-term investments in the accompanying balance sheets.

Grant Income

Grant income is recognized as earned based on contract work performed.

Research and Development

Costs incurred in connection with research and development activities are expensed as incurred. Research and development expense consists of (i) employee-related expenses, including salaries, benefits, travel, and stock-based compensation expense; (ii) external research and development expenses incurred under arrangements with third parties, such as contract research organizations and consultants; (iii) the cost of acquiring, developing, and manufacturing clinical study materials; (iv) facilities and other expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities and laboratory and other supplies; and (v) costs associated with preclinical activities and regulatory operations.

The Company enters into consulting, research, and other agreements with commercial firms, researchers, universities, and others for the provision of goods and services.

Under such agreements, the Company may pay for services on a monthly, quarterly, project, or other basis. Such arrangements are generally cancellable upon reasonable notice and payment of costs incurred. Costs are considered incurred based on an evaluation of the progress to completion of specific tasks under each contract using information and data provided to the Company by its clinical sites and vendors. These costs consist of direct and indirect costs associated with specific projects, as well as fees paid to various entities that perform certain research on behalf of the Company.

Patents

Costs incurred in connection with the application for and issuances of patents are expensed as incurred.

8


Income Taxes

Income taxes are recorded in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 740, Income Taxes, which provides for deferred taxes using an asset and liability approach. The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities and for loss and credit carryforwards using enacted tax rates anticipated to be in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are provided, if, based upon the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

The Company accounts for uncertain tax positions in accordance with the provisions of ASC 740. When uncertain tax positions exist, the Company recognizes the tax benefit of tax positions to the extent that some or all of the benefit will more likely than not be realized. The determination as to whether the tax benefit will more likely than not be realized is based upon the technical merits of the tax position, as well as consideration of the available facts and circumstances. As of March 31, 2017, and December 31, 2016, the Company does not have any significant uncertain tax positions. If incurred, the Company would classify interest and penalties on uncertain tax positions as income tax expense.

Net Loss per Share

The Company’s basic net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is calculated by dividing the net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the period. The diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by adjusting the weighted average shares outstanding for the dilutive effect of common stock equivalents outstanding for the period, determined using the treasury stock method. For purposes of this calculation, convertible preferred stock, convertible notes payable, stock options to purchase common stock, warrants, and unvested restricted stock awards are considered to be common stock equivalents but have been excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders as their effect is anti-dilutive for all periods presented. Therefore, basic and diluted net loss per share were the same for all periods presented.

For all periods presented, all share and per share amounts have been retrospectively adjusted to reflect the exchange of each 2.3336572 shares of Aerpio capital stock and share based awards then outstanding, for 1 share of the Company’s common stock at the effective time of the Merger.

Stock-Based Compensation

The Company accounts for its stock-based compensation awards in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718, Compensation – Stock Compensation. ASC 718 requires all stock-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options and restricted stock, to be recognized in the statements of operations and comprehensive loss based on their fair values. All the Company’s stock-based awards are subject only to service-based vesting conditions. The Company estimates the fair value of its stock-based awards using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, which requires the input of subjective assumptions, including (a) the expected stock price volatility, (b) the calculation of expected term of the award, (c) the risk-free interest rate, and (d) expected dividends. The fair value of restricted stock awards is determined based on the Company’s estimated common stock value.

Due to the lack of a public market for the trading of the Company’s common stock and a lack of company-specific historical and implied volatility data, the Company has based its estimate of expected volatility on the historical volatility of a group of similar companies that are publicly traded. The computation of expected volatility is based on the historical volatility of a representative group of companies with similar characteristics to the Company, including stage of product development and life science industry focus. The Company believes the group selected has sufficient similar economic and industry characteristics and includes companies that are most representative of the Company.

The Company uses the simplified method as prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 107, Share-Based Payment, to calculate the expected term, as it does not have sufficient historical exercise data to provide a reasonable basis upon which to estimate the expected term for options granted to employees, and utilizes the contractual term for options granted to non-employees. The expected term is applied to the stock option grant group as a whole, as the Company does not expect substantially different exercise or post-vesting termination behavior among its employee population. The risk-free interest rate is based on a treasury instrument whose term is consistent with the expected life of the stock options.

Compensation expense related to awards to employees is calculated on a straight-line basis by recognizing the grant date fair value over the associated service period of the award, which is generally the vesting term. Awards to non-employees are adjusted through share-based compensation expense as the award vests to reflect the current fair value of such awards and are expensed using an accelerated attribution model.

9


Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash equivalents, short-term investments, accounts receivable, and accounts payable. The Company values cash equivalents using quoted market prices. The valuation technique used to measure the fair value of short-term investments was based on net asset values corroborated with observable market data. The fair value of accounts receivable and accounts payable approximate the carrying value because of their short-term nature.

The Company is required to disclose information on all assets and liabilities reported at fair value that enables an assessment of the inputs used in determining the reported fair values. FASB ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, establishes a hierarchy of inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the observable inputs be used when available.

Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company’s assumptions about the inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability and are developed based on the best information available in the circumstances. The fair value hierarchy applies only to the valuation inputs used in determining the reported fair value of the investments and is not a measure of the investment credit quality. The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:

 

Level 1 – Valuations based on unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access at the measurement date

 

Level 2 – Valuations based on quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active or for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly

 

Level 3 – Valuations that require inputs that reflect the Company’s own assumptions that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable

To the extent that a valuation is based on models or inputs that are less observable or unobservable in the market, the determination of fair value requires more judgment. Accordingly, the degree of judgment exercised by the Company in determining fair value is greatest for instruments categorized in Level 3. A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement. There were no transfers within the fair value hierarchy in the three months ended March 31, 2017 or March 31, 2016. The assets of the Company measured on a recurring basis as of March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016 basis are summarized below:  

 

 

 

Fair Value Measurements Using

 

 

 

Level 1

 

 

Level 2

 

 

Level 3

 

 

Total

 

March 31, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

35,139,109

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

35,139,109

 

Short-term investments

 

 

 

 

 

50,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

50,000

 

Total assets

 

$

35,139,109

 

 

$

50,000

 

 

$

 

 

$

35,189,109

 

December 31, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

1,609,694

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

1,609,694

 

Short-term investments

 

 

 

 

 

50,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

50,000

 

 

 

$

1,609,694

 

 

$

50,000

 

 

$

 

 

$

1,659,694

 

 

Concentrations of Credit Risk and Off-Balance Sheet Risk

Cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments are the only financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk. At March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, all the Company’s cash was deposited in accounts at two principal financial institutions. The Company maintains its cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments with a high-quality, accredited financial institution and, accordingly, such funds are subject to minimal credit risk. The Company has no significant off-balance sheet concentrations of credit risk, such as foreign currency exchange contracts, option contracts, or other hedging arrangements.

10


Comprehensive Loss

Comprehensive loss is defined as the change in equity of a business enterprise during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources, if any. Comprehensive loss equaled net loss for all periods presented.

Furniture and Equipment

Furniture and equipment is stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Furniture and equipment is depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally three to seven years. Such costs are periodically reviewed for recoverability when impairment indicators are present. Such indicators include, among other factors, operating losses, unused capacity, market value declines, and technological obsolescence. Recorded values of asset groups of property, plant, and equipment that are not expected to be recovered through undiscounted future net cash flows are written down to current fair value, which generally is determined from estimated discounted future net cash flows (assets held for use) or net realizable value (assets held for sale).

Research and Development Costs

Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the FASB or other standard setting bodies and adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, the Company believes the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will not have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations upon adoption.

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, “Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting.” This ASU is intended to simplify accounting for share-based payments and requires that excess tax benefits for share-based payments be recorded as a reduction of income tax expense and reflected within operating cash flows rather than being recorded within equity and reflected within financing cash flows. The ASU also provides an option for companies to recognize forfeitures as they occur rather than estimating the number of awards expected to be forfeited. The Company adopted this ASU on January 1, 2017 and is applying the new guidance related to excess tax benefits on a prospective basis. The Company has also elected to account for forfeitures of share-based payments as they occur.  The effect of adoption was not material to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases. This ASU will require lessees to recognize almost all leases on the balance sheet as a right-of-use asset and a lease liability. For income statement purposes, the FASB retained a dual model, requiring leases to be classified as finance leases or operating leases. This update is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently assessing the effect that adoption of the new standard will have on its condensed consolidated financial statements. 

3. Related-Party Arrangements

Aerpio was initially capitalized in December 2011 in a spinout transaction from Akebia Therapeutics, Inc. (Akebia) to enable more rapid development of its compounds.  In connection with the spinout of Aerpio from Akebia, the companies entered into shared services agreements. Under the terms of the shared services agreements, Akebia and Aerpio obtained from and provided to each other certain services, as outlined below. These agreements were expired at December 31, 2016.

Below is a summary of the activities included in the statements of operations and comprehensive loss:

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

Activity

 

Financial Statement Caption

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Akebia related employee costs

 

Research and development

operating expenses

 

$

 

 

$

12,923

 

Facility-related reimbursement

 

Other income, net

 

 

 

 

 

997

 

  

11


4. Accounts Payable and Accrued Expenses

Accounts payable and accrued expenses are as follows:

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Accounts payable

 

 

$

1,871,662

 

 

$

1,135,608

 

Professional fees

 

 

 

300,356

 

 

 

200,468

 

Accrued bonus

 

 

 

125,576

 

 

 

 

Accrued interest

 

 

 

 

 

 

483,442

 

Accrued vacation

 

 

 

106,199

 

 

 

52,835

 

Accrued project costs

 

 

 

510,828

 

 

 

541,158

 

Other

 

 

 

55,427

 

 

 

57,459

 

Total accounts payable and accrued expenses

 

 

$

2,970,048

 

 

$

2,470,970

 

 

5. Notes Payable to Investors

In March 2016, Aerpio entered into a senior secured convertible note financing (the “Convertible Notes” or the “Convertible Note Financing”) totaling approximately $9,000,000, with certain preferred investors of Aerpio. All preferred investors were invited to participate in the Convertible Notes Financing. At March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016 the unamortized debt issuance costs related to Convertible Note financings was $0 and $75,561. In connection with the Convertible Note Financing, Aerpio’s Articles of Incorporation were amended such that any Aerpio preferred that did not participate in the Aerpio Convertible Note Financing would have their respective shares of Aerpio preferred stock automatically converted into Aerpio common stock using a 3-to-1 conversion ratio and such preferred stockholders would lose the right to representation on the Aerpio Board of Directors and other preferred rights.

The Convertible Note Financing had two separate closings of approximately $4,500,000 each on April 14, 2016 and July 15, 2016. Certain Aerpio preferred stockholders chose not to participate in the Aerpio Convertible Note Financing and their respective Aerpio preferred stock was converted into shares of Aerpio common stock in April 2016 in accordance with the terms of the Articles of Incorporation. Aerpio treated this as an extinguishment of its preferred stock. The Convertible Notes accrued interest at 8% per annum, compounded annually. The Company incurred $138,312 of costs in association with the issuance of the Convertible Notes that was amortized over the seven-month expected life of the Convertible Notes, from the date of execution (March 31, 2016). The Convertible Notes were also subject to mandatory prepayment upon the occurrence of certain events, such as a liquidation, dissolution, or the sale of Aerpio. In addition, and prior to maturity, the Convertible Notes were automatically convertible into shares of Aerpio capital stock upon the occurrence of a sale of Aerpio’s capital stock in a single transaction resulting in gross proceeds to Aerpio of $30,000,000 (hereinafter referred to as an “Investor Sale”). The type and class of Aerpio capital stock of to be issued to the holder of each Convertible Note upon conversion would have been identical to the type and class of Aerpio capital stock issued in the Investor Sale. The holder of each Convertible Note was entitled to a number of shares of Aerpio capital determined by dividing (i) the outstanding principal amount of the Convertible Note plus any unpaid accrued interest by (ii) an amount equal to the price per share of Aerpio capital stock paid by the purchasers of such shares in connection with the Investor Sale. The Convertible Notes were secured by a first priority perfected security interest in all of the Aerpio’s assets.

In October 2016 and February 2017, Aerpio executed an additional senior secured Convertible Note financings (the “Additional Convertible Notes” or the “Additional Convertible Note Financings”) totaling approximately $3,500,000 and $300,000 respectively, with certain preferred investors of Aerpio. The terms of the Additional Convertible Notes are identical to the Convertible Notes and are treated as extensions of the original Convertible Note Financing. The Company incurred $125,935 of costs associated with these transactions, which were amortized to the maturity date of March 31, 2017.  In connection with the Additional Convertible Note Financings, the Convertible Notes were amended and their respective maturity dates were extended from October 31, 2016 to March 31, 2017. The amendments are accounted for as a modification for accounting purposes.

In connection with the Merger (Note 1) the Convertible Notes and accrued interest were converted into the Company’s common stock.

6. Common Stock

As of March 31, 2017, and December 31, 2016, the Company had 300,000,000 and 17,440,436 shares, respectively, of authorized common stock with par value of $0.0001 per share. On March 15, 2017, in connection with the Merger, (Note 1) all the outstanding redeemable convertible preferred stock, was converted into 14,015,016 shares of the Company’s common stock and the Convertible Notes, both principal and accrued interest, were converted into 2,744,059 shares of the Company’s common stock.  

12


The common stock has the following characteristics.  

Voting

The holders of common stock are entitled to one vote for each share of common stock held at all meetings of stockholders and written actions in lieu of meetings.

Dividends

The holders of common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if and when declared by the Board of Directors. Since the Company’s inception, no dividends have been declared or paid to the holders of common stock.

Liquidation

In the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution, or winding-up of the Company, the holders of common stock are entitled to share ratably in the Company’s assets.

Lock-up Agreements and Other Restrictions

In connection with the Merger, each of the Company’s executive officers, directors, stockholders holding substantially all of the shares of common stock issued in exchange for shares held in Aerpio immediately prior to the Merger, certain other stockholders, and certain key employees, (the “Restricted Holders”), holding at the closing date of the Merger (the “Closing Date”) an aggregate of approximately 18.9 million shares of common stock, entered into lock-up agreements,(the “Lock-Up Agreements”), whereby they are restricted for a period of nine months after the Merger, or the Restricted Period, from certain sales or dispositions (including pledge) of all (or 80% in the case of the holders of 915,000 shares) of the Company’s common stock held by (or issuable to) them, (such restrictions together referred to as the “Lock-Up”). The foregoing restrictions will not apply to the resale of shares of common stock by any Restricted Holder in any registered secondary offering of equity securities by the Company (and, if such offering is underwritten, with the written consent of the lead or managing underwriter), or to certain other transfers customarily excepted.

In addition, each Restricted Holder and any stockholders holding or beneficially owning 1% or more of our common stock after giving effect to the Merger, agreed, for a period of 12 months following the Closing Date, that it will not, directly or indirectly, effect or agree to effect any short sale (as defined in Rule 200 under Regulation SHO of the Exchange Act), whether or not against the box, establish any “put equivalent position” (as defined in Rule 16a-1(h) under the Exchange Act) with respect to the common stock, borrow or pre-borrow any shares of common stock, or grant any other right (including, without limitation, any put or call option) with respect to the common stock or with respect to any security that includes, relates to or derives any significant part of its value from the common stock or otherwise seek to hedge its position in the common stock.

 

Anti-dilution protection

 

Investors in the Offering have anti-dilution protection with respect to the shares of the Company’s common stock sold in the Offering such that if within six (6) months after the initial closing of the Offering the Company issues additional shares of common stock or common stock equivalents (subject to certain exceptions), for consideration per share less than the Offering Price, or the Lower Price, each such investor will be entitled to receive from the Company additional shares of common stock in an amount such that, when added to the number of shares of common stock initially purchased by such investor and still held of record and beneficially owned by such investor at the time of the dilutive issuance, or the Held Shares, will equal the number of shares of common stock that such investor’s Offering subscription amount for the Held Shares would have purchased at the Lower Price. Either (i) holders of a majority of the then-held Held Shares or (ii) a representative of the holders of the then-held Held Shares, which representative shall be appointed by three (3) investors who then hold the largest number of Held Shares, may waive the anti-dilution rights of all Offering investors with respect to a particular issuance by the Company. These anti-dilution rights were determined not to be a freestanding financial instrument and do not meet the definition of a derivative.  Accordingly, the anti-dilution rights are embedded into the shares of the Company’s common stock and do not require separate accounting at March 31, 2017.  

 

Warrants to Purchase Common Stock

 

At March 31, 2017, the Company had warrants outstanding for the purchase of 317,562 shares of the Company’s common stock at an exercise price of $5.00 per share.  The warrants have a three-year term and expire on March 15, 2020.  The Warrants were issued in connection with the Offering.  At the expiration date of the warrant, if the fair value of the Company’s common stock exceeds the exercise price, the warrant will be automatically exercised and the exercise price will be fulfilled through the net share settlement provisions.  The number of shares and the exercise price shall be adjusted for standard ant-dilution events such as stock splits,

13


combinations, reorganizations, or issue shares as part of a stock dividend.   Upon a change of control, the warrant holder will have the right to receive securities, cash or other properties it would have been entitled to receive had the warrant been exercised. The Warrants are equity classified instruments and do not contain contingent exercise provisions, or other features, that would preclude the Company from concluding that the Warrants are indexed solely to the Company’s stock.  

7. Preferred Stock

At March 31, 2017, the Company had 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, in authorized capital.  No preferred stock was issued and outstanding at March 31, 2017.  In connection with the Merger (Note 1), all the Aerpio redeemable convertible preferred stock issued and outstanding prior to the Merger was converted into shares of the Company’s common stock.  

At December 31, 2016, Aerpio’s redeemable convertible preferred stock consisted of the following:

 

Series A redeemable convertible preferred stock: 1,326,147 shares authorized and 1,239,338 shares issued and outstanding;

 

Series A1 redeemable convertible preferred stock: 8,368,247 shares authorized and 8,289,663 shares issued and outstanding; and

 

Series A2 redeemable convertible preferred stock: 4,660,573 shares authorized and 4,486,015 shares issued and outstanding.

All share and per share amounts are on an as converted basis to reflect the effect of the Merger.  The rights, preferences, and privileges of the redeemable convertible preferred stock issued and outstanding prior to the Merger were as follows:

Voting

The holders of redeemable convertible preferred stock were entitled to the number of votes equal to the number of whole shares of Aerpio common stock into which the shares of redeemable convertible preferred stock were convertible. Except as provided by law or otherwise, the holders of redeemable convertible preferred stock voted together with the holders of Aerpio common stock as a single class. Certain significant actions required approval by at least 50% of the holders of redeemable convertible preferred stock voting as a single class on an as converted basis. Such significant actions include significant asset transfers, acquisitions, liquidation, amendments to the certificate of incorporation, new indebtedness, repurchase of common stock, changes in the authorized numbers of directors constituting the Board of Directors, and the declaration of dividends.

The holders of shares of redeemable convertible preferred stock were entitled to elect six members of Aerpio’s Board of Directors, which was subject to reduction to not less than four directors under certain circumstances. The holders of Aerpio common stock (including any holders of all shares of redeemable convertible preferred stock on an as converted basis) were entitled to elect two members of Aerpio’s Board of Directors, which was subject to reduction to one director under certain circumstances.

Dividends

Dividends were payable, if permitted by law, in accordance with redeemable convertible preferred stock terms or when and if declared by Aerpio Board of Directors. Prior to the issuance of Series A2 Preferred Stock, dividends on Series A Preferred Stock and Series A1 Preferred Stock were cumulative and accrued daily at a rate of 6% per annum whether or not declared. As part of the Series A2 Preferred Stock issuance, the dividend provisions for Series A Preferred Stock and Series A1 Preferred Stock were retrospectively amended to be noncumulative with the cumulative provision to begin after the Series A2 Preferred Stock issuance date at a rate of 6% per annum. This amendment did not significantly affect the nature of the Series A Preferred Stock and Series A1 Preferred Stock or their fair value. Accordingly, the amendment was treated as a modification for accounting purposes.

Liquidation

In the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution, or winding-up of Aerpio, or upon the occurrence of a Deemed Liquidation Event, as defined, at the election of more than 50% of the holders of Series A2 Preferred Stock and Series A1 Preferred Stock, those holders were entitled to be paid, in preference to the holders of Series A Preferred Stock and Aerpio common stock, out of the assets of Aerpio available for distribution at $4.90 per share for Series A2 Preferred Stock and $3.97 per share for Series A1 Preferred Stock, plus any accrued but unpaid dividends. After the holders of Series A1 Preferred Stock and Series A2 Preferred Stock are satisfied, the holders of Series A Preferred Stock were paid at $4.27 per share, plus any accrued but unpaid dividends before any payment was made to the holders of Aerpio’s common stock.

In the event the assets of Aerpio available for distribution to stockholders were insufficient to pay the full amount to which the holder was entitled, the holders of Series A2 Preferred Stock and Series A1 Preferred Stock would share ratably any assets available for distribution in proportion to their relative original investment amounts. Any remaining assets of Aerpio would be distributed ratably among the holders of Series A Preferred Stock based upon aggregate applicable dividends accrued on Series A Preferred Stock not previously paid.

After the payment of all preferential amounts required to be paid to the holders of redeemable convertible preferred stock, the remaining assets available for distribution would be distributed among the holders of redeemable convertible preferred stock and

14


Aerpio common stock based on the pro rata number of shares held by each holder, treating such securities as if they had been converted to Aerpio common stock immediately prior to such dissolution, liquidation, or winding-up of Aerpio.

Conversion

Each share of redeemable convertible preferred stock was convertible at the option of the holder, at any time and from time to time, into fully paid and non-assessable shares of Aerpio common stock. The initial conversion ratio was one share of redeemable convertible preferred stock for one share of Aerpio’s common stock. The applicable conversion rate was subject to adjustments upon the occurrence of certain events.

Each share of redeemable convertible preferred stock was automatically convertible into fully paid and non-assessable shares of Aerpio common stock at the then-applicable conversion ratio, as defined, upon either: (i) the closing of the sale of shares of Aerpio’s common stock to the public in an underwritten public offering at a price of $14.70 resulting in at least $40,000,000 of gross proceeds, or (ii) the date and time, or the occurrence of an event, specified by vote or written consent of the holders of more than 50% of the then outstanding shares of redeemable convertible preferred stock on an as-converted basis.

Aerpio evaluated each series of its redeemable convertible preferred stock and determined that each individual series is considered an equity host under ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging. In making this determination, Aerpio’s analysis followed the whole instrument approach, which compares an individual feature against the entire redeemable convertible preferred stock instrument that includes that feature. Aerpio’s analysis was based on a consideration of the economic characteristics and risks of each series of redeemable convertible preferred stock. More specifically, Aerpio evaluated all the stated and implied substantive terms and features, including: (i) whether the redeemable convertible preferred stock included redemption features, (ii) how and when any redemption features could be exercised, (iii) whether the holders of redeemable convertible preferred stock were entitled to dividends, (iv) the voting rights of the redeemable convertible preferred stock, and (v) the existence and nature of any conversion rights. Aerpio concluded that as the redeemable convertible preferred stock represents an equity host, the conversion feature included in all series of redeemable convertible preferred stock is clearly and closely related to the associated host instrument. Accordingly, the conversion feature of all series of redeemable convertible preferred stock was not considered an embedded derivative that required bifurcation.

Aerpio accounted for potentially beneficial conversion features under ASC Topic 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options. At the time of each of the issuances of redeemable convertible preferred stock, Aerpio’s common stock into which each series of the redeemable convertible preferred stock was convertible had an estimated fair value less than the effective conversion prices of the redeemable convertible preferred stock. Therefore, there was no beneficial conversion element on the respective commitment dates.

In March 2016, in connection with the Convertible Note Financing described more fully in Note 5, Aerpio’s Articles of Incorporation were amended such that any preferred stockholder that did not participate in the Convertible Note Financing would have their respective shares of redeemable convertible preferred stock automatically converted into Aerpio common stock using a 3-to-1 conversion ratio and such preferred stockholders would lose the right to representation on Aerpio’s Board of Directors and other preferred rights. The amendment did not represent an increase in value to the preferred stockholders and was treated as a modification to the redeemable convertible preferred stock for accounting purposes. Certain shares of redeemable convertible preferred stock held by preferred stockholders that elected to not participate in the Convertible Note Financing were converted to shares in Aerpio’s common stock.

Redemption

The redeemable convertible preferred stock was redeemable on or after July 31, 2017, upon a request by more than 50% of the holders of redeemable convertible preferred stock then outstanding, payable in three annual installments commencing not more than 60 days following receipt by notice at a price equal to the greater of (i) the applicable original purchase price and dividends accrued but unpaid (Applicable Accrued Value), which is equal to its liquidation preference, or (ii) the redeemable convertible preferred stock fair value per share. Due to this redemption option, the redeemable convertible preferred stock was recorded in the mezzanine equity and subject to subsequent measurement under the guidance provided under ASC 480-10-S99. In accordance with that guidance, Aerpio elected to recognize changes in redemption value immediately as they occur through adjustments to the carrying amounts of the instruments at the end of each reporting period. As of December 31, 2016, the redemption values of all series of redeemable convertible preferred stock were equal to their respective Applicable Accrued Value. The fair values of redeemable convertible preferred stock were based upon a hybrid of the probability-weighted expected returns method and an option pricing model (OPM), which is a nonrecurring Level 3 fair value measurement within the fair value hierarchy. Under this hybrid model, share value is based on the probability weighted value of Aerpio in a potential public trading scenario, in which the redeemable convertible preferred stock converted to Aerpio common stock, and a second scenario in which equity value is allocated using the OPM. For the public trading scenario, Aerpio used the guideline public company method under the market approach.

8. Stock-Based Compensation

Pursuant to the Merger (Note 1), the Company assumed each option to purchase Aerpio common stock that remained outstanding under the Aerpio Therapeutics, Inc. 2011 Equity Incentive Plan (the “Plan”), whether vested or unvested, and converted it into an option to purchase such number of shares of the Company’s common stock equal to the number of shares of Aerpio common stock

15


subject to the option immediately prior to the Merger, divided by the applicable Merger exchange rate of 2.3336572, with any fraction rounded down to the nearest whole number.  The exercise price per share of each assumed option is equal to the exercise price of the Aerpio option prior to the assumption, multiplied by the applicable Merger exchange rate of 2.3336572, rounded up to the nearest whole cent.  The terms of the 2011 Plan continue to govern the options covering an aggregate of 924,706 shares of the Company’s common stock at March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, subject to awards assumed by the Company, except that all references in the 2011 Plan to Aerpio, will now be the Company.  In addition, each unvested share of Aerpio restricted common stock issued under the 2011 Plan that was outstanding immediately prior to the effective time of the Merger, was converted by virtue of the Merger into restricted common stock of the Company, equal to the number of shares of Aerpio common stock subject to the unvested shares of Aerpio restricted common stock immediately prior to the Merger divided by the applicable Merger exchange rate of 2.3336572, with any fraction rounded down to the nearest whole number.

In March 2017, the Company’s Board of Directors adopted, and the stockholders approved, the 2017 Stock Option and Incentive Plan (the “2017 Plan”), that became effective in April 2017.  The 2017 Plan provides for the issuance of incentive awards up to 4,600,000 shares of common stock to officers, employees, consultants and directors, less the number of shares subject to issued and outstanding awards under the 2011 Plan that were assumed in the Merger.  The 2017 Plan also provides that the number of shares reserved for issuance thereunder will be increased annually on the first day of each year beginning in 2018 by four percent (4%) of the shares of our common stock outstanding on the last day of the immediately preceding year or such smaller increase as determined by our board of directors.  No awards were granted under the 2017 Plan as of March 31, 2017. 

Stock Options

The options granted generally vest over 48 months. For employees with less than one year’s service, options vest in installments of 25% at the one-year anniversary and thereafter in 36 equal monthly installments beginning in the 13 month after the initial Vesting Commencement Date (as defined), subject to the employee’s continuous service with the Company. Options granted to other employees vest in 48 equal monthly installments after the initial Vesting Commencement Date, subject to the employee’s continuous service with the Company. The options generally expire ten years after the date of grant. The fair value of the options at the date of grant is recognized as an expense over the requisite service period.  No option awards were granted in the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016.  

The following table summarizes the stock option activity during the three-months ended March 31, 2017:

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Weighted Average

Exercise

Price

 

 

Weighted Average

Remaining

Contractual

Term (in Years)

 

 

Aggregate

Intrinsic

Value

 

Outstanding, January 1, 2017

 

 

927,592

 

 

$

1.70

 

 

 

7.48

 

 

$

1,030,217

 

Granted

 

 

-

 

 

$

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exercised

 

 

-

 

 

$

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expired/cancelled

 

 

(2,886

)

 

$

2.11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outstanding, March 31, 2017

 

 

924,706

 

 

$

1.70

 

 

7.24

 

 

$

3,056,035

 

Expected to vest, March 31, 2017

 

 

265,647

 

 

$

1.81

 

 

8.45

 

 

 

848,613

 

Options exercisable, March 31, 2017

 

 

659,059

 

 

$

1.65

 

 

6.75

 

 

$

2,207,422

 

 

Aggregate intrinsic value represents the estimated fair value of the Company’s common stock at the end of the period in excess of the weighted average exercise price multiplied by the number of options outstanding or exercisable.  

Compensation expense for stock options was $81,120 and $42,816 for the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. As of March 31, 2017, there was $264,823 of unrecognized compensation cost related to stock options, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 2.1 years.

Restricted Stock

Shares of restricted stock generally have similar vesting terms as stock options. A summary of the Company’s restricted stock activity and related information during the three months ended March 31, 2017 is as follows:

16


 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Weighted Average

Grant Date

Fair Value

 

Nonvested, January 1, 2017

 

 

241,096

 

 

$

1.91

 

Granted

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vested

 

 

(39,455

)

 

$

1.79

 

Forfeited

 

 

(5,222

)

 

$

2.20

 

Nonvested, March 31, 2017

 

 

196,419

 

 

$

1.93

 

 

The Company recognized compensation expense for restricted stock of $74,265 and $82,399 for the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. As of March 31, 2017, there was $366,970 of unrecognized compensation cost related to these restricted stock grants, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 1.4 years.

Compensation Expense Summary

The Company has recognized the following compensation cost related to employee and non-employee stock-based compensation activity:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Research and development

 

$

115,302

 

 

$

81,733

 

General and administrative

 

 

40,083

 

 

 

43,482

 

Total

 

$

155,385

 

 

$

125,215

 

 

9. Income Taxes

The Company did not record a current or deferred income tax expense of benefit for the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, due to the Company’s net losses and increases in its deferred tax asset valuation allowance.

10. Net Loss per Share

The following table sets forth the computation of the Company’s basic and diluted net loss per share for the periods presented:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Net loss and comprehensive loss

 

$

   (4,995,703

)

 

$

(4,194,698

)

Accretion of preferred stock to redemption value

 

 

      (943,297

)

 

 

(1,015,371

)

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

 

$

   (5,939,000

)

 

$

  (5,210,069

)

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic

   and diluted

 

$

            (1.06

)

 

$

           (7.07

)

Weighted average common shares used in computing net loss

   per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and

   diluted

 

 

5,605,151

 

 

 

737,016

 

 

The following weighted average common stock equivalents were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share for the periods presented because including them would have had an anti-dilutive effect:

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Convertible preferred stock (if converted)

 

 

-

 

 

 

14,183,564

 

Options to purchase common stock

 

 

924,706

 

 

 

907,486

 

Unvested restricted stock

 

 

196,419

 

 

 

241,096

 

Warrants to purchase common stock

 

 

317,562

 

 

 

-

 

 

17


11. Commitments and Contingencies

The Company contracts with various organizations to conduct research and development activities. In addition, the Company is a party to a lease covering 7,580 square feet of space in Cincinnati, Ohio that expires in June 2018. Total rent expense for all operating leases was $51,289 and $45,180 for the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The lease agreement contains free rent, escalating rent payments and reimbursement for tenant improvements that amounted to $46,390 in the three months ended March 31, 2016. Rent expense is recorded on the straight-line basis over the initial term with the differences between rent expense and rent payments recorded as deferred rent. As of March 31, 2017, the Company had deferred rent of $47,948, which is included in accrued expenses in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet.  As of March 31, 2017, non-cancelable future minimum lease payments under the existing operating lease were $131,684. In addition, as of December 31, 2016, future payments related to operating leases and other operating commitments arising from contracts related to research and development activities are presented in the table below.  

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2019 and

Thereafter

 

 

Total

 

Operating leases

 

$

104,440

 

 

$

52,978

 

 

$

 

 

$

157,418

 

All other operating commitments

 

 

2,761,501

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,761,501

 

Total commitments

 

$

2,865,941

 

 

$

52,978

 

 

$

 

 

$

2,918,919

 

 

12.  Employee Stock Purchase Plan

In March 2017, the Board of Directors adopted and the stockholders approved, the Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “ESPP”), that became effective in April 2017.  The ESPP provides for the issuance of up to 300,000 shares of the Company’s common stock for the purchases made under the ESPP.  The ESPP also provides that the number of shares reserved for issuance thereunder will be increased annually on the first day of each year beginning in 2018 by one percent (1%) of the shares of the Company’s common stock outstanding on the last day of the immediately preceding year or such smaller increase as determined by the Company’s Board of Directors.  The Board of Directors has not yet determined the timing for the offering periods under the ESPP.

 

 

18


Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion of the financial condition and results of operations of Aerpio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and the notes to those statements included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10Q for the period ended March 31, 2017. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risk, uncertainties and assumptions. You should read the “Risk Factors” section of this Quarterly Report on Form 10Q for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.

Operating Overview

We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on advancing first-in-class treatments for ocular disease. Our lead product candidate, AKB-9778, a small molecule activator of the tie-2 pathway, is being developed for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (“DR”). Tie-2 signaling is essential for regulating blood vessel development and the stability of mature vessels. We have completed a Phase 2a clinical trial in diabetic macular edema (“DME”), a swelling of the retina that is a common cause of vision loss in patients with DR and intends to initiate a twelve month, double blind Phase 2b clinical trial in patients with DR who have not developed more serious complications such as DME or proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The DR clinical trial will be initiated in the second quarter of 2017.

In addition, we have two pipeline programs.  AKB-4924 is a drug candidate for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and ARP-1536, humanized monoclonal antibody is a drug candidate for ocular disease. Humanized antibodies are antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to increase their similarity to antibodies produced naturally in humans. We completed a Phase 1a clinical trial in healthy volunteers for AKB-4924 and APR-1536 is currently in preclinical development.  Further development on the pipeline programs is subject to receiving additional funding, which we may seek through collaborations with potential strategic and commercial partners.

Our operations to date have been limited to organizing and staffing our company, business planning, raising capital, acquiring and developing our technology, identifying potential product candidates, and undertaking preclinical and clinical studies. We have not generated any revenues to date, nor is there any assurance of future revenues. Our product candidates are subject to long development cycles, and there is no assurance we will be able to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for, or market our product candidates. As of March 31, 2017, we had an accumulated deficit of $92.2 million and anticipate incurring additional losses for the next several years.

Our primary source of liquidity to date has been through the private placement offering of our common stock (the “Offering”) in March 2017 and the historical sales of redeemable convertible preferred stock, common stock and proceeds from convertible debt. The aggregate net proceeds from the Offering in March 2017 were $37.2 million.  In 2016, we raised a total of $12.5 million through the issuance of secured convertible notes.  In 2017, we raised a total of $0.3 million through the issuance of secured convertible notes. In 2014, we raised a total of $22.0 million ($21.8 million net of offering costs) through the issuance of redeemable convertible preferred stock. Based on our current plans, we expect that our existing cash and cash equivalents, will enable us to conduct our planned operations into the first quarter of fiscal 2019.  We will need to raise additional funds to further advance our clinical research programs, commence additional clinical trials, and commercialize our products, if approved.  While we continue to pursue financing alternatives, which may include equity financing, business development arrangements, licensing arrangements and business combination transactions, financing may not be available to us in the necessary time frame, in the amounts that we need, on terms that are acceptable to us or at all.  If we are unable to raise the necessary funds when needed or reduce spending on currently planned activities, we may not be able to continue the development of our product candidates or we could be required to delay, scale back, or eliminate some or all of our development programs and other operations and will materially harm our business and financial position.

We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future. We expect our expenses will increase substantially in connection with our ongoing activities, as we:

 

continue our research and development efforts;

 

add personnel to support our clinical development program; and

 

operate as a public company.

We are subject to a number of risks similar to other life science companies in the current stage of our life cycle, including, but not limited to, the need to obtain adequate additional funding, possible failure of preclinical testing or clinical trials, competitors developing new technological innovations, and protection of proprietary technology. If we do not successfully mitigate any of these risks, we will be unable to generate revenue or achieve profitability. The accompanying financial statements have been prepared assuming our company will continue as a going concern, which contemplates the realization of assets and payments of liabilities in the

19


ordinary course of business. We had cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments of $35.2 million at March 31, 2017. We believe our existing cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments, will be sufficient to fund currently planned operations into the first quarter of fiscal year 2019.

Basis of Presentation

The unaudited interim financial statements of the Company for the three-months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, contained herein, include a summary of our significant accounting policies and should be read in conjunction with the discussion below.

Recent Developments

Merger

On March 15, 2017, our wholly-owned subsidiary, Aerpio Acquisition Corp., a corporation formed in the State of Delaware, or the Acquisition Sub, merged with and into Aerpio Therapeutics, Inc., (“Aerpio”) a corporation incorporated on November 17, 2011 under the laws of the State of Delaware. Pursuant to this transaction, or the Merger, Aerpio was the surviving corporation and became our wholly-owned subsidiary.  We changed our name from Zeta Acquisition Corp II to Aerpio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. All the outstanding stock of Aerpio was converted into shares of our common stock.

At the effective time of the Merger, the legal existence of Acquisition Sub ceased and each 2.3336572 shares of Aerpio common and preferred stock that was issued and outstanding immediately prior to the effective time of the Merger, including share based awards, whether vested or unvested issued under the Aerpio Therapeutics, Inc. 2011 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2011 Plan”), was automatically exchanged for one share of our common stock. In addition, immediately prior to the Merger, the outstanding amounts under certain senior secured convertible notes issued by Aerpio to its pre-Merger noteholders were converted into Aerpio common stock, which were converted in the Merger into shares of our common stock at the same ratio. We issued an aggregate of 18,000,000 shares of our common stock upon such exchange of the outstanding shares of Aerpio common stock. In addition, at the effective time of the Merger, we assumed Aerpio’s 2011 Equity Incentive Plan. At the effective time of the Merger, we assumed the outstanding options under the 2011 Plan and converted them into options to purchase 927,592 shares of our common stock. As a result of the Merger, we acquired the business of Aerpio and will continue the existing business operations of Aerpio as a public reporting company under the name Aerpio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Immediately after the Merger, Aerpio was converted into a Delaware limited liability company (the “Conversion”).

The Merger was treated as a recapitalization and reverse acquisition for financial reporting purposes. We are the legal acquirer of Aerpio in the transaction.  However, Aerpio is considered the acquiring company for accounting purposes since (i) former Aerpio stockholders own in excess of 50% of the combined enterprise on a fully diluted basis immediately following the Merger and Offering, and (ii) all members of the Company’s executive management and Board of Directors are from Aerpio.  In accordance with the “reverse merger” or “reverse acquisition” accounting treatment, the unaudited condensed consolidated interim financial statements for the period ended March 31, 2017 include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiary, Aerpio Therapeutics, LLC.  The comparative historical financial statements for periods ended prior to the date of the Merger are the historical financial statements of Aerpio.  

The following discussion highlights Aerpio’s results of operations and the principal factors that have affected our financial condition as well as our liquidity and capital resources for the periods described, and provides information that management believes is relevant for an assessment and understanding of the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of financial condition and results of operations presented herein. The following discussion and analysis are based on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, which we have prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles. You should read the discussion and analysis together with such condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto.

Share Cancellation

Following the Merger and Conversion, and immediately prior to the closing of the Offering, an aggregate of 4,000,000 of the 5,000,000 shares of our common stock that were held by the pre-Merger stockholders of Zeta Acquisition Corp. II were surrendered for cancellation (the “Share Cancellation”).

Offering

Following the Merger, the Conversion and the Share Cancellation, we sold to accredited investors approximately $40.2 million of our shares of common stock, or 8,049,555 shares, at a price of $5.00 per share, (net proceeds of $37.2 million after deducting placement agent fees and expenses of the offering). In connection with the Offering, we issued warrants to purchase 317,562 shares of our

20


common stock at $5.00 per share to the placement agents for the Offering.  The warrants are exercisable for three years.  The Offering closed on March 15, 2017.

Components of Statements of Operations

Operating Expenses

Research and Development. Research and development expenses consist primarily of compensation and related costs for personnel, including stock-based compensation, employee benefits and travel. These costs also consist of third-party service providers for our potential product development activities, third-party consulting services, laboratory supplies, research materials, medical equipment, computer equipment, and related depreciation and amortization. We expense research and development expenses as incurred. As we continue to invest in basic research and clinical development of our product candidates, we expect research and development expenses to increase in absolute dollars.

General and Administrative. Our general and administrative expenses consist primarily of compensation and related costs for personnel, including stock-based compensation, employee benefits and travel, for our finance, human resources, regulatory and other administrative personnel. In addition, general and administrative expenses include third-party consulting, legal, audit, accounting services, and facilities costs. We expect general and administrative expenses to increase in absolute dollars following the consummation of the Merger due to additional legal, accounting, insurance, investor relations and other costs associated with being a public company, as well as other costs associated with growing our business.

Interest (Expense) Income, Net

Interest income consists primarily of interest income received on our cash and cash equivalents.  Interest expense consists primarily of interest related to our secured convertible promissory notes issued in 2016 and 2017.

Grant Income

Grant income is recognized as earned based on contract work performed.

Results of Operations

The following tables set forth our results of operations for the periods presented:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

$

2,255,584

 

 

$

2,989,558

 

General and administrative

 

 

2,504,001

 

 

 

1,215,885

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

4,759,585

 

 

 

4,205,443

 

Operating loss

 

 

(4,759,585

)

 

 

(4,205,443

)

Grant income

 

 

35,657

 

 

 

8,670

 

Interest (expense) income, net

 

 

(271,775

)

 

 

1,078

 

Other income, net

 

 

-

 

 

 

997

 

Total other (expense) income, net

 

 

(236,118

)

 

 

10,745

 

Net loss and comprehensive loss

 

$

(4,995,703

)

 

$

(4,194,698

)

 

Comparison of the Three Months Ended March 31, 2017 and 2016

Operating Expenses

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

$

2,255,584

 

 

$

2,989,558

 

General and administrative

 

 

2,504,001

 

 

 

1,215,885

 

Total operating expenses

 

$

4,759,585

 

 

$

4,205,443

 

21


Research and Development

 Research and development expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2017 decreased $0.7 million, or 24.6%, compared to the three months ended March 31, 2016. This decrease was across all three of our programs and was primarily attributable to the development stage of our lead program and companywide discretionary cost constraints put in place during the 2017 period as we pursued financing alternatives.

The decrease in spending in our lead program, AKB-9778, for the three months ended March 31, 2017 from the corresponding period in 2016 is primarily attributed to reductions in costs associated with conducting a toxicology study in the 2016 period, which were completed prior to 2017.  The reduction in toxicology expense is partially offset by an increase in external development expenses for drug formulation and expenses to prepare for the initiation of a Phase 2 clinical trial in diabetic retinopathy that is planned to begin in the second quarter of 2017.

The decrease in spending in our AKB-4924 program for the three months ended March 31, 2017 from the corresponding period in 2016, is primarily attributable to the expense associated with toxicology and pharmacokinetics studies during the 2016 period, which were completed prior to 2017.  The reduction in costs associated with the toxicology studies is offset by costs associate with the initiation of the first human clinical study of this compound and includes an increase in spending on personnel related costs.  

The decrease in spending in the ARP-1536 program for the three months ended March 31, 2017 from the corresponding period in 2016 is primarily due to cell line development expenses incurred in the 2016 period, which were completed prior to 2017 and had minimal activity in the 2017 period to conserve cash until the completion of a financing event.  

General and Administrative.

General and administrative expenses in the three months ended March 31, 2017, increased $1.3 million, or 105.9%, compared to the three months ended March 31, 2016. This increase was primarily attributable to legal and accounting costs associated with the Merger and related transactions.  

Other (Expense) Income, Net

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Other (expense) income:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grant income

 

$

35,657

 

 

$

8,670

 

Interest (expense) income, net

 

 

(271,775

)

 

 

1,078

 

Other income, net

 

 

-

 

 

 

997

 

Total other (expense) income, net

 

$

(236,118

)

 

$

10,745

 

Grant income

Grant income is recognized as earned based on contract work performed. Grant income amounts can vary greatly from period to period depending on the funding and needs of the party for whom we perform the requested services.

Interest (expense) income, Net

Interest expense in the three months ended March 31, 2017 is primarily related to interest on the senior secured convertible notes issued during 2016 and in January 2017, offset in part by a small amount of interest income.  The principal and accrued interest on the secured convertible notes was converted into common stock on March 15, 2017, in connection with the Merger.  We completed three note financings in fiscal 2016 totaling an aggregate principal amount of approximately $12.5 million. The financings were funded in four tranches’, beginning with one in April 2016 for $4.5 million, one in July 2016 for $4.5 million, one in October for $3.5 million and one in January 2017 for $0.3 million. The notes had interest at the rate of eight percent (8%) per annum, compounded annually.  Interest income reflects amounts earned on invested cash balances in short term money market instruments.

22


Other income, net

Other income represents amounts received from Akebia for services rendered under the shared services agreements.  The agreements expired in 2016.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Since inception, we have incurred significant net losses and negative cash flows from operations. For the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, we had net losses of $5.0 million and $4.2 million, respectively. At March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, we had an accumulated deficit of $92.2 million and $86.2 million, respectively.

 

At March 31, 2017, we had cash and cash equivalents and short term investments of $35.2 million. To date, we have financed our operations principally through the Offering, private placements of our redeemable convertible preferred stock, common stock and issuances of secured convertible promissory notes.  Based on our current plans, we expect that our existing cash and cash equivalents, will enable us to conduct our planned operations into the first quarter of fiscal 2019.

We could potentially use our available financial resources sooner than we currently expect, and we may incur additional indebtedness to meet future financing needs. Adequate additional funding may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. In addition, although we anticipate being able to obtain additional financing through non-dilutive means, we may be unable to do so. Our failure to raise capital as and when needed could have significant negative consequences for our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our future capital requirements and the adequacy of available funds will depend on many factors, including those set forth in the section titled “Risk Factors.”

The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods presented:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Net cash used in operating activities

    

$  

   (3,929,121

)

 

$

  (3,873,127

)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

 

(2,208

)

 

 

(110,449

)

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

37,460,744

 

 

 

-

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

 

$

  33,529,415

 

 

$

  (3,983,576

)

 

Operating Activities

We have historically experienced negative cash outflows as we developed AKB-9778, ARP-1536 and AKB-4924. Our net cash used in operating activities primarily results from our net loss adjusted for non-cash expenses and changes in working capital components. Our primary uses of cash from operating activities are amounts due to contract research organizations for the conduct of our clinical programs and employee-related expenditures for research and development, and general and administrative activities. Our cash flows from operating activities will continue to be affected principally by increased spending to advance of our product candidates in the clinic, personnel to support those activities and other operating and general administrative activities.

 

For the three months ended March 31, 2017, operating activities used approximately $3.9 million in cash, primarily as a result of our net loss of $5.0 million, offset by approximately $0.6 million from changes in working capital and $0.5 million in non-cash charges that consisted of stock compensation expense, non-cash interest expense, amortization of debt issuance costs and depreciation expense. For the three months ended March 31, 2016, operating activities used $3.9 million in cash, primarily as a result of our net loss of $4.2 million, offset by approximately $0.2 million net change in our working capital, and $0.1 million of non-cash charges consisting of stock compensation expense and depreciation expense.

Investing Activities

Cash used in investing activities for both three month periods ended March 31, 2017 and 2016 was due to capital expenditures to support our operations.

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Financing Activities

During the three months ended March 31, 2017, we received net proceeds of $37.2 million from the sale of common stock at $5.00 per share, issued in the Offering and $0.3 million in January from an extension to the Aerpio senior secured convertible notes.  

On March 31, 2016, Aerpio entered into a senior secured convertible note financing with certain preferred stock investors of Aerpio.  The secured convertible notes accrued interest at 8% per annum, compounded annually.  Each of the secured convertible notes were also subject to mandatory prepayment and were also convertible into preferred stock of Aerpio upon the occurrence of certain events, as described in the Note Agreements.

We received proceeds from the first tranche in April 2016 and subsequent tranches in July 2016, October 2016 and January 2017.  The outstanding principal and accrued interest under the secured convertible notes was converted into shares of Aerpio common stock immediately prior to the effective time of the Merger, and exchanged for shares of our common stock pursuant to the Merger.

Contractual Obligations and Commitments

There have been no material changes outside the ordinary course of business during the period covered by this Report from the contractual obligations and commitments as of December 31, 2016 described in our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 17, 2017.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

During the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, we did not have any off-balance sheet arrangements as defined by applicable SEC regulations.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our condensed consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or GAAP. The preparation of these condensed consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, expenses and related disclosures. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Our estimates are based on historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Our actual results could differ from these estimates.

We believe that the assumptions and estimates have the greatest potential impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements. Therefore, we consider these to be our critical accounting policies and estimates. For further information on all our significant accounting policies, see the notes to our financial statements.

Prepaid and Accrued Research and Development Expenses

As part of the process of preparing our consolidated financial statements, we are required to estimate our prepaid and accrued research and development expenses. This process involves reviewing open contracts and purchase orders, communicating with our personnel to identify services that have been performed on our behalf and estimating the level of service performed and the associated cost incurred for the service when we have not yet been invoiced or otherwise notified of the actual cost. The majority of our service providers invoice us monthly in arrears for services performed. We make estimates of our prepaid and accrued research and development expenses as of each balance sheet date in our financial statements based on facts and circumstances known to us at the time. We confirm the accuracy of estimates with the service providers and make adjustments if necessary. Examples of estimated prepaid and accrued research and development expenses include expenses for:

 

Clinical Research Organizations (CROs) in connection with clinical studies;

 

Investigative sites in connection with clinical studies;

 

Vendors in connection with preclinical development activities; and

 

Vendors related to product manufacturing, development and distribution of clinical materials.

We base our expenses related to clinical studies on our estimates of the services received and efforts expended pursuant to contracts with multiple CROs that conduct and manage clinical studies on our behalf. The financial terms of these agreements are subject to negotiation, vary from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows. The scope of services under these contracts can be modified and some of the agreements may be cancelled by either party upon written notice. There may be instances in which payments made to our vendors will exceed the level of services provided and result in a prepayment of the clinical expense. Payments

24


under some of these contracts depend on factors such as the successful enrollment of subjects and the completion of clinical study milestones. In accruing service fees, we estimate the time period over which services will be performed and the level of effort to be expended in each period. If the actual timing of the performance of services or the level of effort varies from our estimate, we adjust the accrual or prepaid accordingly.

Although we do not expect our estimates to be materially different from amounts actually incurred, if our estimates of the status and timing of services performed differ from the actual status and timing of services performed we may report amounts that are too high or too low in any particular period. To date, there have been no material differences between our estimates and the amount actually incurred.

Stock-Based Compensation

We issue stock-based awards generally in the form of stock options and restricted stock. We account for our stock-based compensation awards in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation, or ASC 718. ASC 718 requires all stock-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options and restricted stock and modifications to existing stock awards to be recognized in the statements of operations and comprehensive loss based on their fair values. Described below is the methodology we have utilized in measuring stock-based compensation expense.

We estimate the fair value of our options to purchase shares of common stock to employees using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, which requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including (a) the expected stock price volatility, (b) the calculation of the expected term of the award, (c) the risk-free interest rate and (d) expected dividends. Due to the lack of a public market for the trading of our common stock and a lack of company-specific historical and implied volatility data, we have based our estimate of expected volatility on the historical volatility of a group of similar companies that are publicly traded. The historical volatility is calculated based on a period of time commensurate with the expected term assumption. The computation of expected volatility is based on the historical volatility of a representative group o